Prehistory: territorial and multiplicity of gods
Hinduism: 5000 BC at least
Judaism: 3000 BC monotheism
Used mathematics to show the earth was round. Believed the stars were fixed and unchanging.
Christianity: monotheistic BC/AD
Islam: 622 AD monotheistic
Mediaeval Church – Taught that the Earth was flat and at the centre of the universe
Heliocentric (sun-centred) view of the universe.
Used the telescope to prove the earth went round the sun and that so did the planets. Placed under house arrest (1633 -1642) following trial by the inquisition at which they tried to make him recant. Discovered the moons of Jupiter and sunspots. Disagreed with Kepler (below).
Posited the idea that the moon caused the tides and that the orbits of the planets were elliptical. Discovered through observation of a super nova in 1604 that the stars were not fixed but variable.
Formulated the laws of universal gravitation and three laws of motion. Criticised the literal interpretation of the bible and did not believe in the Trinity.
1752 Gregorian calendar superseded the Julian calendar
Steady State universe universally accepted
Published his Origin of Species – his theory of evolution.
Produced his theory of special relativity
Proponent of the Big Bang theory based on Einstein’s theory of relativity
Richard Dawkins (atheist)
Biologist. Religion is a meme.
Stephen Hawking (physicist)
Credited with proving black holes exist and that they are the natural end to the universe.
Developed a model of the universe which he likened to the north pole in that you cannot travel north of it, likewise the universe has no boundaries and is not closed; i.e. the universe is constantly expanding into space which does not exist before hence the universe is infinite and growing!!!