- From Telos purpose
- P1 phenomena within universe appear to show evidence of design
P2 such design cannot come about =by chance
Conclusion there must be an intelligent designer.
- Order is hard to deny so how do we explain it?
A non-theistic explanation is not a complete one whereas to say God is the designer is!
- Need to explain why the universe is the way it is?
Features which need explaining are:
Order, regularity, laws of nature
Benefit or beauty
Purpose – whole universe is working towards some sort of end or purpose
Order in universe has contrived to bring about perfect conditions for human life.
Conclusion is that these right conditions are too remote a probability to come about by chance.
- Aquinas’ 5th way: even non-rational beings act in such a way as to bring about the best result.
Therefore there must be some sort of intelligence directing their behaviour.
- William Paley and his watch analogy. All parts of the watch unite to fulfil its purpose and this unity cannot be explained by chance.
- Swinburne theism is highly probable the evidence of order and design increases this probability. ‘God being perfectly good, is generous. He wants to share.’
- The Providential argument: The universe contains everything necessary for survival implies God had a choice about what kind of universe to make therefore this universe is not the product of chance.
- The Aesthetic argument: beauty is not necessary, nor art nor music literature nor culture; they have no inherent value. FR Tennant: ‘…beauty seems to be superfluous and to have little survival value.’
- The Anthropic Principle: FR Tennant again suggests that the universe’ purpose and reason is to support human life.