• Patriarchal society dictates how women see themselves.
  • Men run society; women are a threat so this disempowers them.
  • To be looked at / ‘looked-at-ness’
  • Women bearer of meaning – not maker of meaning
  • Scopophilia – reducing women to objects to be looked at and for men to gain pleasure from looking – e.g. men’s magazines. [MEN BEHAVING BADLY pornography episode.]
  • Leads to voyeurism at its extreme. [SKINS!! / REAR WINDOW.]
  • Cinemas pander to this – dark, comfortable, private, separation – fantasy up there on screen, grants anonymity; gives impression we are given access to an otherwise private world.
  • Active/ male vs. passive / female – binary opposition – Levi Strauss
  • Camera becomes a male eye.
  • Most directors are men!
  • Camera operators likewise!
  • Production companies controlled by men!
  • Women hold the look and play to the male’s desire.
  • Women unclothed – men never! [SKINS!]
  • Women often slow the narrative down; i.e. get in the man’s way, need rescuing, misunderstand, become the reason for the male’s actions.
  • Men speed the narrative up, are responsible for the action; women are there to be looked at ‘eye candy!’
  • Implications – women are used to being subjected to the male gaze and see themselves as men do: idealised. Image consciousness is FOR men’s benefit!


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